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This, and the possibility of a "general glut", an over accumulation of capital to produce goods for sale rather than for use, became the foundation of a rising critique of the concept that free markets with competition would be sufficient to prevent disastrous downturns in the economy, and whether the need for expansion would inevitably lead to war.A key early socialist theorist of political economy was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.As such it is commonly regarded as a movement belonging to the modern era.Many socialists have considered their advocacy as the preservation and extension of the radical humanist ideas expressed in Enlightenment doctrine such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Discourse on Inequality, Wilhelm von Humboldt's Limits of State Action, or Immanuel Kant's insistent defense of the French Revolution.These included many religious movements, such as the Christian socialism of the Shakers in America and the Hutterites.The Zionist kibbutzim and communes of the counterculture are also manifestations of utopian socialist ideas.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels believed that hunter-gatherer societies and some primitive agricultural societies were communal, and called this primitive communism.
Socialist economics has been associated with different schools of economic thought.
Marxian economics provided a foundation for socialism based on analysis of capitalism, while neoclassical economics and evolutionary economics provided comprehensive models of socialism.
The dislocation that Polyani and others describe, triggered natural counter-movements in efforts to re-embed the economy in society.
These counter-movements, that included, for example, the Luddite rebellions, are the incipient socialist movements.
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Non-market forms of socialism usually include a system of accounting based on calculation-in-kind to value resources and goods.