Direct line web cam sexy
A more direct and common signal, however, is perception of certain odours released by hazardous microbes and/or their activity.If these odours are detected, the food item is directly discarded, a behaviour which saves lives.In this circuit, the stimulus is directly patched through from antenna to behaviour, without any detours.Until now, such patterns have only been measured in the responses to sex pheromones, if that is at all comparable, report the scientists.
The human nose is highly sensitive to this odour and can detect it at concentrations as low as 0,1 ppb (parts per billion).
Behavioural scientists and neurobiologists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, have now for the first time decoded the neural mechanisms underlying an escape reflex in fruit flies (Drosophila) activated in order to avoid eating and laying eggs in food infected by toxic microorganisms.
A super-sensitive and completely dedicated neural line, from olfactory receptor, via sensory neuron and primary brain neurons, is activated as soon as the tiniest amount of geosmin is in the air.
In the picture is its chemical structure − a bicyclic alcohol − as well as a rotting orange infested with a Penicillium fungus.
Although geosmin is very widely spread in nature, it is produced and released only by certain microbes.